What the Best Mentors Do

 

mentoring articles

The study of mentoring has generally been conducted within disciplinary silos with a specific type of mentoring relationship as a focus. The purpose of this article is to quantitatively review the three major areas of mentoring research (youth, academic, workplace) to determine the overall effect size associated with mentoring outcomes for telmoress.tk by: Mentoring Articles & Mentoring Tips from Our Newsletter Archive Improve Your Mentoring Skills through “Mentoring Minute” We send a monthly email newsletter called “Mentoring Minute” with tips and ideas on creating, managing, and sustaining your corporate mentoring programs. Mentoring and Training- How They Work Together. While training classes are widely available for any learning need, they can become costly. The time spent away from the office and various travel expenses, as well as the cost to take the course calls for an immense commitment of both time and money from your organization.


Mentoring Articles - Mentoring Tips - Mentoring Skills


The study of mentoring has generally been conducted within disciplinary silos with a specific type of mentoring relationship as a focus. Results demonstrate that mentoring is associated with a wide range of favorable behavioral, attitudinal, health-related, relational, motivational, mentoring articles, and career outcomes, although the effect size is generally small.

Some differences were also found across type of mentoring. Generally, larger effect sizes were detected for academic mentoring articles workplace mentoring compared to youth mentoring.

Implications for future research, theory, and applied practice are provided. Despite the widespread mentoring articles of mentoring and its prevalence in community, academic and organizational contexts, research has progressed within its mentoring articles disciplinary silos.

As a consequence, there is little cross-disciplinary communication among mentoring scholars. There mentoring articles also no quantitative reviews of the mentoring literature as a whole, even though the same basic assumption applies to all types of mentoring.

This information has implications for theory development and refinement, mentoring articles. Finally, we were interested in examining whether mentoring outcomes vary by the type of relationship youth mentoring, workplace mentoring, academic mentoring. This will provide a more fine-grained assessment of the conditions under which mentoring matters the most. Because individuals may experience mentoring at various life stages, it is not surprising that there are three distinct streams of mentoring scholarship: youth mentoring, mentoring articles, academic mentoring, and workplace mentoring.

Youth mentoring involves a relationship between a caring, supportive adult and a child or adolescent Rhodes, Youth mentoring assumes that supportive relationships with adults are important for personal, emotional, cognitive, and psychological growth Ainsworth, ; Rhodes, This type of mentoring may facilitate psychological adjustment and foster a sense of professional identity Austin, Several narrative reviews of the youth, academic, mentoring articles, and workplace mentoring literature exist.

Some narrative reviews summarize research findings associated with mentoring articles, academic or workplace mentoring in a particular area, such as diversity e.

Other reviews focus on a specific type of mentoring e. Several quantitative reviews also exist. Collectively these represent important efforts to synthesize the literature. However, there are no reviews that incorporate diverse areas of mentoring scholarship or compare mentoring outcomes across youth, academic and workplace mentoring.

The present study addresses this issue. We expect a wide mentoring articles of outcomes to be related to mentoring. This includes behavioral, attitudinal, health-related, relational, motivational, mentoring articles, and career outcomes.

Mentoring is often discussed as a means to increase desirable behavior e. Campbell, in press ; Rhodes, The hope is that mentoring will deter negative outcomes such as drug use, teen pregnancy, college drop-out, mentoring articles, and academic failure while simultaneously encouraging alternative positive behaviors.

This leads us to propose:. Hypothesis 1: Mentoring is associated with positive behavioral outcomes. Thus, we expect:. Hypothesis 2: Mentoring is associated with positive attitudinal outcomes, mentoring articles. A mentor may listen and offer advice during times of stress or provide counseling on personal or job-related issues Kram, As such we propose:, mentoring articles.

Hypothesis 3: Mentoring is associated with positive health-related outcomes. Mentoring also may enhance interpersonal relationships with parents, siblings, and peers Rhodes,mentoring articles, Hypothesis 4: Mentoring is associated with positive relational outcomes.

Based on this, mentoring articles, we propose:. Hypothesis 5: Mentoring is associated with positive motivational outcomes, mentoring articles. Finally, mentoring relationship may promote career success. These important career contacts can in turn lead to career success in terms of salary, promotions, and job offers. Thus, we propose:. Although similar in some respects, youth, academic, mentoring articles, and workplace mentoring also differ.

These developmental transitions represent mentoring articles turning points and if not navigated successfully there are psychological and social consequences Erikson, mentoring articles, From middle childhood to adolescence the primary developmental issues involve mentoring articles how to cultivate healthy peer relationships, master academic challenges, and develop a sense of personal responsibility Erikson, ; Spencer, in press, mentoring articles.

By the time one enters the workforce, the transition generally focuses on developing a stable occupational self-image and finding a niche for oneself in society Levinson et al. Mentoring at different developmental stages also tends to serve different functions or purposes. Academic mentoring tends to target student retention, academic performance, and adjustment to college life Jacobi, Based on the unique developmental transitions individuals face across the lifespan and the varying purposes of different types of mentoring we propose the following research question:.

We also cross-referenced quantitative reviews Allen et al. Finally, the websites of several nationwide formal mentoring programs e. Unpublished research such as conference papers, dissertations and theses were excluded.

Because of this we conducted a file drawer analysis. The fail safe N FSN represents the number of missing studies averaging null results that would be needed to reduce the effect size to a specified level Rosenthal, The initial search process yielded 15, mentoring articles, articles and reports.

To be considered for inclusion mentoring articles study had to compare mentored and non-mentored individuals on an individual-level outcome e. The study also had to be written in English and quantify the relationship between mentoring and the outcome using a statistic that could be converted to a product-moment correlation coefficient e.

For studies that met the inclusion criteria but did not report usable statistics e. Individual studies also had to meet all of the following criteria:. The study involved a focus on traditional one-on-one non-parental mentoring relationships, mentoring articles. Also excluded were studies focusing exclusively on parents as mentors, professional caregivers or specialists as mentors, and social support from teachers for youth.

For intervention studies, mentoring had to be the sole mentoring articles primary intervention e. Research on mentoring articles induction programs, on-the-job training, and internship programs was excluded because these studies do not necessarily involve one-on-one mentoring. One hundred and twelve studies and reports met all of the eligibility criteria, mentoring articles.

Three studies included multiple samples, mentoring articles, for a total of independent samples for the meta-analysis. If authors published different studies from the same dataset or a smaller sub-set of the same dataset, only the effect size based on the larger sample size was included. A full list of the studies included in the present meta-analysis is available from the first author. Mentoring was operationalized as non-mentored coded 1 or mentored coded 2, mentoring articles.

As such, positive correlations indicated that being mentored was associated mentoring articles a higher level of each criterion variable e.

Table 1 lists the six broad categories of outcomes examined. Within each category we list the specific outcomes examined and examples of how these outcomes were operationalized. Some of the outcomes listed in Table 1 are applicable across different types of mentoring e. If two mentoring articles more effect sizes from the same study were combined into an outcome category, the effect sizes were averaged so that each sample only contributed one effect size Mentoring articles et al, mentoring articles.

Youth mentoring was defined as a naturally occurring informal or formally arranged e, mentoring articles. Academic mentoring studies were those that examined relationships among undergraduate or graduate students and teachers mentoring articles faculty members in community colleges, four year colleges, and universities Johnson, in press including medical schools and nursing programs.

Studies were coded as workplace mentoring if they focused on formal or informal mentoring relationships between working adults in an organizational setting Allen et al. The 15, articles were screened by two of the study authors. The first and second authors were responsible for coding all studies included in the meta-analysis. Spot checking throughout the coding process revealed minimal coding errors.

Coding discrepancies were resolved through re-examination of the data and when necessary, discussion. The effect size used in the current analysis was the product-moment correlation coefficient. To compute a meta-analytic correlation at least three mentoring articles were required. Each correlation was first corrected for unreliability in the measurement of the outcome variable, mentoring articles.

If coefficient alpha was not reported for a study we used the average coefficient alpha for the other studies in that outcome category, as is commonly done mentoring articles meta-analysis e.

Some outcomes did not require disattenuation e. Next, the sample size weighted correlation was calculated. As with the primary analyses, a minimum of three studies was mentoring articles to compute sub-group meta-analytic correlations. Non-overlapping confidence intervals provides evidence of significant sub-group differences cf, mentoring articles.

Ng et al. Table 2 provides the results of the meta-analysis of outcomes associated with mentoring. We computed effect sizes with and without these large samples. An important consideration is whether to adopt a fixed-effects or random-effects meta-analytic model. With fixed-effects methods, the effect sizes in the population are unknown constants but are fixed, mentoring articles, presumed to be the same for all studies included in the meta-analysis.

The random-effects method is generally preferred since it allows generalizations beyond the studies included in a meta-analysis Field, However, when fewer than 30 effect sizes are used in calculating meta-analytic correlations, mentoring articles, random-effects methods have some serious limitations i. These problems are exacerbated with the Hunter and Schmidt technique Field, Thus, meta-analytic correlations were computed using both fixed-effects see Table 2 and random-effects see Table 3.

Hypotheses 1—6 were supported. The largest effect sizes were between mentoring and helping others large sample removedschool attitudes, and career attitudes. All of the effect sizes were small in magnitude, mentoring articles.

 

Understanding the Role of a Mentor

 

mentoring articles

 

by Rik Nemanick, Ph.D. This post is the seventh in the series The Mentor’s Way, a set of guides for mentors who want to bring out the best in others. Up until now, many of the Rules of Mentoring have focused on building the relationship between the mentor and protégé and giving direction to the mentoring process. Mentoring Articles & Mentoring Tips from Our Newsletter Archive Improve Your Mentoring Skills through “Mentoring Minute” We send a monthly email newsletter called “Mentoring Minute” with tips and ideas on creating, managing, and sustaining your corporate mentoring programs. Mentoring and Training- How They Work Together. While training classes are widely available for any learning need, they can become costly. The time spent away from the office and various travel expenses, as well as the cost to take the course calls for an immense commitment of both time and money from your organization.